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انسانیت - History Of Tabriz

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انسانیت -محبت-آزادی و مسائل روزمره جامعه و خانوادگی

History Of Tabriz

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General Location


   Tabriz, Being the provincial capital of Eastern Azarbaaijaan ( Aturpaatgaan ),  has slightly more than 1,400,000 population (1992 census) and  was the second largest city in Iran until the early 1970's. Tabriz has been the capital city of Iran on numerous times throughout the old history of this country. Tabriz is located in a valley to the north of the beautiful Mount Sahand. The valley opens out into a plain that slopes down gently to the northern end of Lake Orumieh, about 60 km to the west.
    Tabriz is 310 km southeast of Bazargan ( Iranian- Turkish frontier); 159 km south of Jolfa on Iran- Aran (Azarbaijan republic ) border, and can be reached by very good roads, rail (742km  from Tehran, with connections to the Europe and Moscow), and air from Tehran and other major cities.
    The 160 km long Talkheh Rud or Aji Chai is the major river of the city, formed  by merging of three smaller rivers of Ab Nahand, Guri Chai, and Ojan Chai which all originate from the Sabalan Mountain range and heights in the southeastern part of the town. The Talkheh Rud and other streams join the lake of Orumieh after passing through the valleys between the Sorkhband and Yekkeh Chin mountain north of Tabriz and Osku district. Mehran Rud also called Liqvan rud originates from the peaks between Karim and Sultan Mountains overlooking the Liqvan village near the beautiful Esparakhoon and Qeshloq villages.



Climate


    By virtue of its location, Tabriz has  a mild Summer climate,which makes this city an ideal Summer vacation spot for the Iranians from  the more Southern areas of the country. The Winters are cold and the snow filled  mountains of Tabriz are perfect for the lovers of Winter sports. Tabriz has a continental type of climate with low humidity of average annual rainfall  of 289 mm.
Generally, the East Azarbayjan province enjoys a cold and dry climate, being mainly a mountainous region. But the gentle vapours of the Caspian Sea have some influence on the climate of the low-lying areas. Temperatures run up to 8.9° C in Tabriz, till 20° C in Maraqeh and in winters drops to -1° C . The ideal seasons to visit this province are in spring and summer months.
    Tabriz has been vulnerable to earthquakes throughout its long history, one of which nearly destroyed the city completely in 858. After being rebuilt, it was again devastated in 1041, when more than 40,000 people lost their lives.

History Of Tabriz


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Iran,  539 - 330 B.C.

    The city has a long and turbulent history: although the early history of Tabriz is shrouded in legend and mystery, the town's origin is believed to date back to distant antiquity, perhaps even before the Sassanian era (224-651AD). The oldest stone tablet with a reference to Tabriz  is that of Sargon the second, the Assyrian King. The tablet refers to a place called Tauri Castle and Tarmkis. The historians believe this castle was situated on the site of the present day Tabriz.
    It was the capital of Azarbaijan in the 3rd century AD and again under the Mongol Ilkhanid dynasty (1256 - 1353), although for some time Maragheh supplanted it.
    During the reign of Aqa Khan of the Ilkhanids, as well as under the reign of Ghazan Khan, Tabriz reached the peak of glory and importance. Many great artists and philosophers from all over the world traveled to Tabriz.
    In 1392, after the end of Mongol rule, the town was sacked by Tamerlane.  It was soon restored under the Turkman tribe of the Qara Qoyunlu, who established a short-lived local dynasty.  Under the Safavids it rose from regional to national capital for a short period, but the second of the Safavid kings, Shah Tahmasb, moved the capital to Qazvin because of the vulnerability of Tabriz to Ottoman attacks.  The town then went into a period of decline, fought over by the Iranians, Ottomans and Russians and struck by earthquake .
    Tabriz was the residence of the crown prince under the Qajar kings,  but the town did not return to prosperity until the second half of the 19th century.  The greatest boost to Tabriz came with the opening up of Iran to the West at the turn of this century, when it became the main staging post between the interior of Iran and the Black Sea and,for a short time, the economic capital.  In 1908 it was the center of a revolt against Mohammad Ali Shah, which was only put down with the brutal intervention of the Russians.
    In the second Irano-Russian War the city was occupied by the Czar troops.   However, it was returned to Iran following the signing of Turkmanchai Treaty, a peace and trade settlement that ended the Irano-Russian War of 1826-1828.
    The Iranian Constitutional Revolution originated in Tabriz and culminated during the reign of Mohammad Ali Shah of Qajar dynasty (1779-1925).  Sattar Khan and Baqer Khan were the two most prominent leading figures behind the movement.
    Tabriz was occupied by Russians several times in the first half of this century, including most of both world wars.  A railway line to the border at Jolfa, built by the expansionist Russians, was of little importance until recently, but it has increased in significance in the '90s as a result of Iran's friendlier relations with its northern neighbors.
    With a very rich history, Tabriz used to house many historical monuments.   Unfortunately, many of them were destroyed in repeated invasions and attacks of foreign forces, negligence of the ruling governments, as well natural disasters such as earthquakes and floods.  What remains now mostly dates back to the Ilkhanids, the Safavids, and the Qajars.  Some of the monuments are unrivaled masterpieces of architecture.  {  A brief history of Tabriz in Farsi }
    There are many factories and great industrial and productive sites in Tabriz which have changed it into one of the industrial centers in the country.  The most important factories are as follows:
Tractor, machinery and ball-bearing manufacturing factories, refinery and so many other centers such as carpet weaving sites.
    There are weekly and daily flights from Tabriz International Airport to Tehran, Mashhad, Rasht, Orumiyeh, Pars Abad (Moghan) and Kish Island.  There are over ten hotels ( first class), which provide good facilities for the tourists.


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